December 19, 2001

America Admired, Yet Its New Vulnerability Seen As Good Thing, Say Opinion Leaders

Questionnaire

         PEW RESEARCH CENTER FOR THE PEOPLE AND THE PRESS
                & THE INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE
                   GLOBAL OPINION LEADER SURVEY
                          FINAL TOPLINE
                     NOV. 12 - DEC. 13, 2001

Q1   Has the terrorist attack in the US and subsequent war opened up a new chapter in
     world history or do you think this will not turn out to be such a significant event?

                                         Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                         Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US    US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     New chapter in world history  78    79      76      73     90      69      90       80
     Not such a significant event  20    18      22      20     10      29      10       17
     Don't Know/Refused             2     3       2       7      0       2       0        3
                                  100   100     100     100    100     100     100      100
     Number of interviews:       (40)  (235)    (41)   (30)   (41)    (62)    (41)     (71)

Q2   Do you think the terrorist attacks are the start of a major conflict between the West and Islam,
     or will it remain only a conflict between the West and al Qaeda (bin Laden's network)?

                                         Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                         Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US    US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Major conflict between the
       West and Islam              28    27      20     40      34      12      41       29
     Will remain only a conflict
       between the West and
       al Qaeda                    52    59      63     40      41      76      54       64
     Don't Know/Refused            20    14      17     20      25      12       5        7
                                  100   100     100    100     100     100     100      100

NOT ASKED OF RESPONDENTS IN FRANCE, INDIA, THE UNITED KINGDOM AND SOME IN
JAPAN AND THE U.S.:
Q3   Do you think the Taliban regime in Afghanistan will be removed in the next twelve
     months or not?
                                         Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                         Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US    US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Removed                       97    85      85     77      93      72      90       84
     Not removed                    0    12      10     23       5      21       5       10
     Don't Know/Refused             3     3       5      0       2       7       5        6
                                  100   100     100    100     100     100     100      100
     Number of interviews:       (39)  (201)   (21)   (30)    (41)    (48)    (41)     (71)

ASK ALL:
Q4   If it turns out that other regimes such as Iraq and Somalia have supported terrorism,
     should the United States and its allies attack them or should the war be confined to
     Afghanistan?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Attack                        50   29      32     23      34      27      24       32
     Confine to Afghanistan        38   54      37     74      39      58      66       59
     Don't Know/Refused            12   17      31      3      27      15      10        9
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

Q5   How do you see the conflict   do you think the US is taking into account the
     interests of its partners in the fight against terrorism or do you think the
     US is acting mainly on its own interests?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Taking into account the
        interests of its partners  70   33     34      37      37      25      27       25
     Acting mainly on its own
        interests                  28   62     66      60      61      65      71       69
     Don't Know/Refused             2    5      0       3       2      10       2        6
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

Q6   Do you think the coalition of major countries formed to combat terrorism will lead
     to closer relations between the US, Russia, and China in the long term, or do you
     think that newly improved relations will only be temporary?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Closer relations between the
       US, Russia, and China in
       the long term               63   42      65     30      47      27      29       31
     Recently improved relations
       will only be temporary      25   51      20     57      51      68      63       65
     Don't Know/Refused            12    7      15     13       2       5       8        4
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

Q7   Do you think the war on terrorism is worth the risk of destabilizing the governments of the
     Muslim states supporting the coalition or isn't it worth that risk?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area*    Islamic
     Worth the risk of destabilizing
       the governments of the
       Muslim states               85   54      61     47      46      41      74       59
     Not worth that risk            2   38      25     47      42      52      23       38
     Don't Know/Refused            13    8      14      6      12       7       3        3
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100
                                                                             (N=31)
    * Question not asked in Egypt.

Q8   Has the United States been too supportive of Israel or don't you think so?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Yes                           35   73      68     40      78      82     95        90
     No                            45   21      32     47      17      10      5         9
     Don't Know/Refused            20    6       0     13       5       8      0         1
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

BASED ON FORM B WORDING:
Q9   If the US pressured Israel to create a Palestinian state, would it lead to less
     terrorism or would it make the terrorism problem worse? 

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Less terrorism                67   74      82     57      68      70      90       86
     Make terrorism worse           8   13       7     10      12      22      10       14
     Don't Know/Refused            25   13      11     33      20       8       0        0
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100
     Number of interviews:       (40) (196)   (28)   (30)    (41)    (36)    (41)     (71)

ASK ALL:
Q10  In the future do you think our country will become a target of al Qaeda terrorism or
     don't you think that is likely?
ASK IF BELIEVE COUNTRY WILL BECOME TARGET OF AL QAEDA (Q10=1):
Q11  What is the best way of preventing such attacks, by allying closely with the United States
     or by avoiding an alliance with the US?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US*  US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Yes, become a target          85   27      47     13      20      30      24       21
          Allying closely with
             the US                --   16      34     10      15      13      14        9
          Avoiding an alliance
             with the US           --    5       0      3       0       9       5        6
          Don't Know/Refused       --    6      13      0       5       8       5        6
     No, not likely                15   66      38     84      80      62      64       72
     Don't Know/Refused             0    7      15      3       0       8      12        7
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

ASK ALL:
Q12  In order to curb terrorism, would you be willing or unwilling to accept less
     personal freedom?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Willing                       68   49      66     53      32      45      49       44
     Unwilling                     20   42      29     40      51      42      49       50
     Don't Know/Refused            12    9       5      7      17      13       2        6
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

Q13  Do you think there should be stricter limits on immigration in our country or not?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Yes                           55   40      42     50      43      26      53       43
     No                            40   54      50     43      54      66      42       53
     Don't Know/Refused             5    6       8      7       3       8       5        4
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

Q14  We're interested in what ordinary people think about the attacks in the US. Do most
     people, many people, only some, or hardly any ordinary people think . . . 

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
a.   That US policies and actions
     in the world were a major
     cause of the attack
          Most people               0   26       9     34      19      24      47       45
          Many people              18   32      27     37      39      36      34       31
          Only some                48   29      37     23      34      24      15       18
          Hardly any               32    9      22      3       5      10       2        3
          Don't know/Refused        2    4       5      3       3       6       2        3
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

b.   The US is over reacting to
     the terrorist attack
          Most people               0   18       7      3      10      24      43       41
          Many people               0   24      20     50      30      18      19       21
          Only some                15   39      46     23      43      42      36       29
          Hardly any               85   17      25     17      17      13       2        9
          Don't know/Refused        0    2       2      7       0       3       0        0
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

c.   It's good that Americans now
     know what it's like to be
     vulnerable
          Most people              --   29      24     37      29      25      31       35
          Many people              --   41      42     33      42      51      34       38
          Only some                --   17      17     20      12      11      22       17
          Hardly any               --    8      15      7      12       8       5        4
          Don't know/Refused       --    5       2      3       5       5       8        6
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

d.   The US is doing the right
     thing for the world by
     fighting terrorism
          Most people              --   32      46     44      20      27      27       28
          Many people              --   30      44     20      26      36      14       20
          Only some                --   22       8     30      29      23      19       24
          Hardly any               --   11       0      3      20       9      30       22
          Don't know/Refused       --    5       2      3       5       5      10        6
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

e.   It's sad to see what America
     is going through
          Most people              --   33      49     44      31      26      24       24
          Many people              --   34      35     27      30      44      22       34
          Only some                --   22      14     23      29      18      26       25
          Hardly any               --    6       0      3       5       6      18       11
          Don't know/Refused       --    5       2      3       5       6      10        6
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

Q15  And roughly how many ordinary people support the position of  . . . 

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
a.   Osama bin Laden and the al
     Qaeda network
          Most people              --    1       0      0       0       0       8        4
          Many people              --    6       0      0       0      10      17       20
          Only some                --   30       7     63      26      29      37       37
          Hardly any               --   60      91     37      74      59      28       33
          Don't know/Refused       --    3       2      0       0       2      10        6
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

b.   The US
          Most people              --   31      52     37      29      16      32       27
          Many people              --   36      37     43      34      43      14       18
          Only some                --   22       7     17      32      34      14       29
          Hardly any               --    7       2      0       5       5      25       17
          Don't know/Refused       --    4       2      3       0       2      15        9
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

Q16  Overall, do ordinary people have a very favorable, mostly favorable, mostly
     unfavorable, or very unfavorable opinion of the US?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Very Favorable                --    9      10     17       8       7       2        6
     Mostly Favorable              --   60      71     56      55      67      46       46
     Mostly Unfavorable            --   24      17     20      32      24      29       32
     Very Unfavorable              --    4       0      0       0       0      20       13
     Don't Know/Refused            --    3       2      7       5       2       3        3
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

Q17  The next two questions are about why people dislike and like the United States.
     Do you think each of the following is a major reason, a minor reason, or not
     much of a reason that some people in our country dislike the US. . .

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
a.   US support for Israel
          Major reason             70   29      22     17       7      36      57       57
          Minor reason             25   36      48     46      32      25      33       29
          Not much of a reason      2   33      22     37      59      39      10       13
          Don't know/Refused        3    2       8      0       2       0       0        1
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

b.   The spread of American culture
     through movies, television,
     and pop music
          Major reason             28   15      22     27      17       9      10       10
          Minor reason             62   36      39     40      34      36      29       27
          Not much of a reason     10   47      34     33      47      53      61       63
          Don't know/Refused        0    2       5      0       2       2       0        0
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

c.   The growing power of American
     multinational corporations
          Major reason             40   36      59     47      44      21      17       17
          Minor reason             53   38      27     33      34      48      42       42
          Not much of a reason      5   25       9     20      22      31      41       41
          Don't know/Refused        2    1       5      0       0       0       0        0
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

d.   US support for authoritarian
     governments in Arab countries
          Major reason             33   21     36      13      24      13     20        14
          Minor reason             55   38     49      30      32      32     46        39
          Not much of a reason     10   35     10      50      37      47     32        44
          Don't know/Refused        2    6      5       7       7       8      2         3
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

e.   US policies which may have
     contributed to the growing
     gap between rich and poor
          Major reason             43   52      61     53      51      42      59       45
          Minor reason             40   31      29     40      29      32      27       34
          Not much of a reason     15   15       5      7      15      26      14       21
          Don't know/Refused        2    2       5      0       5       0       0        0
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

f.   Resentment of US power in
     the world
          Major reason             88   52      66     64      58      38      54       41
          Minor reason             12   31      22     13      29      35      41       42
          Not much of a reason      0   14       5     23      10      25       5       16
          Don't know/Refused        0    3       7      0       3       2       0        1
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

Q18  Do you think each of the following is a major reason, a minor reason, or not much of
     a reason that some people in our country like the US. . .

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
a.   The US does a lot of good
     around the world
          Major reason             52   21      22     23      12      23      22       20
          Minor reason             40   48      58     57      35      47      49       45
          Not much of a reason      8   28      17     17      51      30      24       31
          Don't know/Refused        0    3       3      3       2       0       5        4
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

b.   American democratic ideals
     are appealing
          Major reason             70   63      68     67      66      63      49       48
          Minor reason             28   28      24     23      27      32      31       38
          Not much of a reason      0    8       5      7       7       5      20       13
          Don't know/Refused        2    1       3      3       0       0       0        1
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

c.   America is the land
     of opportunity
          Major reason             83   75      73     76      66      76      81       81
          Minor reason             15   19      17     17      30      22      14       15
          Not much of a reason      2    5       7      7       4       2       5        3
          Don't know/Refused        0    1       3      0       0       0       0        1
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

d.   The US has led in scientific
     and technological innovation
          Major reason             32   67      63     66      71      58      86       73
          Minor reason             58   27      35     27      24      31      14       24
          Not much of a reason     10    5       0      7       5      11       0        1
          Don't know/Refused        0    1       2      0       0       0       0        2
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

e.   American consumer goods,
     movies, and music are popular
          Major reason             57   52      63     53      47      45      39       42
          Minor reason             38   36      30     37      34      40      49       41
          Not much of a reason      5   11       5      7      19      15      12       16
          Don't know/Refused        0    1       2      3       0       0       0        1
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

Q19  Do you think that the pace of globalization has recently been slowed a lot, a little,
     hardly any, or not at all?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     A lot                          8   10       5      7       7      22       0        9
     A little                      40   36      22     23      39      47      44       43
     Hardly any                    30   28      42     30      22      20      27       27
     Not at all                    22   25      31     33      32      11      29       21
     Don't Know/Refused             0    1       0      7       0       0       0        0
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100     

ASK Q20 AND Q21 IF RESPONDENT SAID SLOWED "A Lot" or "A Little" (Q19=1 or 2):
Q20  Do you think the slowing down in the pace of globalization is a short-term or a
     long-term phenomenon?
                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Short-term                    68   63      81     67      41      69      61       65
     Long-term                     21   30       9     22      54      26      27       29
     Don't Know/Refused            11    7      10     11       5       5      12        6
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100
     Number of interviews:       (19) (108)   (11     (9)    (19)    (43)    (18)     (37)

Q21  And is the slowing down in the pace of globalization a good thing or a bad thing for
     ordinary people?
                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Good thing                    32   52      53     44      69      49      55       45
     Bad thing                     63   31      19     44      10      33      34       44
     Don't Know/Refused             5   17      28     12      21      18      11       11
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100
     Number of interviews:       (19) (108)   (11     (9)    (19)    (43)    (18)     (37)

ASK ALL:
Q22  In your opinion, has globalization been a major cause of terrorism, a minor cause,
     or not much of a cause?
                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Major cause                   10   19      19     20      22      18      14       20
     Minor cause                   35   41      37     53      32      43      46       43
     Not much of a cause           50   37      39     27      44      34      37       36
     Don't Know/Refused             5    3       5      0       2       5       3        1
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

Q23  In our country, will the following be helped or hurt in the coming year by the
     war on terrorism . . .
                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
a.   The sale of American
     consumer products
          Helped                   10   11       2     13      17       0      27       17
          Hurt                     50   27      10     13      24      39      37       37
          Neither (VOL)            40   44      38     74      52      30      36       45
          Don't know/Refused        0   18      50      0       7      31       0        1
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

b.   The popularity of American
     music and movies
          Helped                   15   18      20     27      24       5      20       16
          Hurt                     18   16       2     10      15      21      32       28
          Neither (VOL)            67   47      38     63      54      36      43       52
          Don't know/Refused        0   19      40      0       7      38       5        4
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

c.   Tourism to our country
          Helped                    2   17       5     20      28       3      24       17
          Hurt                     90   64      68     33      64      92      59       65
          Neither (VOL)             8   15      15     47       8       2      15       15
          Don't know/Refused        0    4      12      0       0       3       2        3
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

d.   Airline travel
          Helped                    0    9       2      7      12       2      17       14
          Hurt                     98   81      95     73      83      88      78       70
          Neither (VOL)             2    9       0     20       5      10       5       16
          Don't know/Refused        0    1       3      0       0       0       0        0
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

e.   Use of the Internet
          Helped                   48   46      29     40      39      43      72       52
          Hurt                      0    8       5     10      12      10       4        8
          Neither (VOL)            52   34      26     50      49      27      24       38
          Don't know/Refused        0   12      40      0       0      20       0        2
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

f.   Population migration
          Helped                    2   15      12     27       4       3      30       23
          Hurt                     78   47      41     20      71      53      56       52
          Neither (VOL)            18   26      19     46      25      20      12       24
          Don't know/Refused        2   12      28      7       0      24       2        1
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

g.   Exports from our country
          Helped                    0   23      10     30      31       3      41       29
          Hurt                     42   50      34     36      44      88      42       52
          Neither (VOL)            58   17      19     27      25       3       7       13
          Don't know/Refused        0   10      37      7       0       6      10        6
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

h.   Foreign investments in our
     country
          Helped                   12   22       7     37      24       2      52       33
          Hurt                     38   48      36     30       47     82      41       51
          Neither (VOL)            45   20      19     33       29      5       2       13
          Don't know/Refused        5   10      38      0       0      11       5        3
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

i.   Personal freedoms
          Helped                    0   10       0      3      21       2      22       17
          Hurt                     90   53      71     50      54      48      61       46
          Neither (VOL)            10   28      16     40      25      33      12       34
          Don't know/Refused        0    9      13      7       0      17       5        3
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

j.   Privacy
          Helped                    0   12       0     20      21       0      29       18
          Hurt                     95   50      66     33      59      46      48       39
          Neither (VOL)             5   28      21     37      20      35      15       37
          Don't know/Refused        0   10      13     10       0      19       8        6
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100

Q24  What about the strengthening of democratic institutions in transitional countries
     will it be helped or hurt in the coming year by the war on terrorism?

                                        Total         East                   Mid-East/
                                        Non-  West.   Euro./  Latin          Conflict
                                   US   US    Europe  Russia  Amer.   Asia   Area     Islamic
     Helped                        55   39      43     23      46      31      37       38
     Hurt                          20   38      22     64      34      43      48       38
     Don't Know/Refused            25   23      35     13      20      26      15       24
                                  100  100     100    100     100     100     100      100