March 18, 2003

America’s Image Further Erodes, Europeans Want Weaker Ties

Questionnaire

                                    Pew Global Attitudes Project
                                           9 Country Study
                                            FINAL TOPLINE
                             United States   March 13 - 16, 2003 (N=1,032)
                                  Britain   March 14 - 16, 2003 (N=962)
                                  France   March 13 - 14, 2003 (N=485)
                                  Germany   March 14 - 15, 2003 (N=524)
                                  Italy   March 12 - 14, 2003 (N=500)
                                  Spain   March 12 - 17, 2003 (N=503)
                                  Poland   March 10 - 14, 2003 (N=500)
                                  Russia   March 12 - 14, 2003 (N=501)
                                  Turkey   March 10 - 17, 2003 (N=513)

Q.1  All in all, are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way things are going in this
     country today?

                                                  Don't know/
                         Satisfied  Dissatisfied  Refused
     Britain                  30        63         7=100
          July, 2002          32        64         4=100

     France                   31        67         2=100
          July, 2002          32        67         1=100

     Germany                  18        79         3=100
          July, 2002          31        66         2=99

     Italy                    20        74         7=101
          July, 2002          24        70         6=100

     Spain                    41        47        12=100

     Poland                    7        89         4=100
          July, 2002           9        87         3=99

     Russia                   35        58         7=100
          July, 2002          20        71         9=100

     Turkey                   18        81         2=101
          July, 2002           4        93         3=100

Q.2  Please tell me if you have a very favorable, somewhat favorable, somewhat unfavorable
     or very unfavorable opinion of the United States.

                        Very     Somewhat     Somewhat     Very        Don't know/
                      Favorable  Favorable  Unfavorable  Unfavorable   Refused
     Britain             14        34           24          16         11=99
          July, 2002     27        48           12           4          9=100

     France               6        25           45          22          2=100
          July, 2002      9        54           26           8          2=99

     Germany              4        21           41          30          4=100
          July, 2002      9        52           31           4          4=100

     Italy                8        26           33          26          8=101
          July, 2002     13        57           18           5          7=100

     Spain                3        11           35          39         12=100

     Poland               9        41           33          11          7=101
          July, 2002     14        65           10           1         10=100

     Russia               4        24           43          25          4=100
          July, 2002      8        53           27           6          6=100

     Turkey               3         9           17          67          5=101
          July, 2002      6        24           13          42         15=100

Q.3  Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the international policies of President
     George W. Bush? (U.S. asked "Do you approve or disapprove of the way George W. Bush
     is handling the nation's foreign policy?")

                                                       Don't know/
                                Approve   Disapprove   Refused
     United States                53        36         11=100
          April, 2002             69        20         11=100
          March, 2002             78        17          5=100
          October, 20012          81        14          5=100
          Early September, 2001   46        34         20=100
          August, 2001            45        32         23=100

     Britain                      23        60         17=100
          April, 2002             40        37         23=100
          August, 2001            17        49         34=100

     France                       10        87          3=100
          April, 2002             32        61          7=100
          August, 2001            16        59         25=100

     Germany                      14        85          2=101
          April, 2002             35        59          6=100
          August, 2001            23        65         12=100

     Italy                        14        76         10=100
          April, 2002             44        47          9=100
          August, 2001            29        46         25=100

     Spain                         9        79         13=101

     Poland                       33        54         13=100

     Russia                        8        83          9=100

     Turkey                        5        85         10=100

Ask in U.S., Britain, Italy, Spain and Poland:
Q.4a Thinking about possible war with Iraq, would you favor or oppose (Survey country)
     joining the U.S. and other allies in military action in Iraq to end Saddam Hussein's
     rule?  (U.S. asked "Would you favor or oppose taking military action in Iraq to end
     Saddam Hussein's rule?")

                                                  Don't know/
                             Favor    Oppose      Refused
     United States            59        30        11=100
          February, 2003      66        26         8=100

     Britain                  39        51        10=100
          November, 2002      47        47         6=100

     Italy                    17        81         2=100

     Spain                    13        81         7=101

     Poland                   21        73         6=100

Ask in France, Germany, Russia and Turkey:
Q.4b Thinking about possible war with Iraq, would you favor or oppose the U.S. and
     other allies taking military action in Iraq to end Saddam Hussein's rule?

                                                  Don't know/
                             Favor    Oppose      Refused
     France                   20        75        6=101
          November, 2002      33        64        3=100

     Germany                  27        69        4=100
          November, 2002      26        71        3=100

     Russia                   10        87        3=100
          November, 2002      12        79        9=100

     Turkey                   12        86        2=100

Q.5  Ask in Turkey only:
     In your opinion, which of the following better explains why the U.S. might
     use military force against Iraq?  Is it more because the U.S. believes that
     SADDAM HUSSEIN IS A THREAT to stability in the Middle East and world peace
     or is it more because this is a part of the U.S.'s war against MUSLIM COUNTRIES
     that it sees as unfriendly?

                            US believes    Part of war
                            Saddam is      against
                            threat to      Muslim      Don't know/
                            stability      countries   Refused
     Turkey                   22             60         17=99
          November, 2002      34             53         13=100

Q.6a Generally, do you think American foreign policy has a positive effect on our country,
     a negative effect, or does American foreign policy have no effect on our country?

                                                           Don't know/
                         Positive    Negative  No Effect   Refused
     Britain                  38        39        11        12=100
          January, 2003       30        42         9        19=100

     France                   14        63        20         4=101
          January, 2003        9        71         9        11=100

     Germany                  15        59        20         5=99
          January, 2003       11        67        17         5=100

     Italy                    17        52        15        16=100

     Spain                    14        49        16        21=100
          January, 2003        9        57        15        19=100

     Poland                   26        41        18        15=100

     Russia                    8        58        17        17=100
          January, 2003       11        55        23        11=100

     Turkey                   14        68         9        10=101

[If Negative]
Q.6b Why is it that American policy is having a negative effect on our country?
     Is it mostly because of President George W. Bush or is it more a general
     problem with America?

                       Mostly    America        Both      Don't know/
                        Bush     in general    [VOL.]     Refused
     Britain             56        31            11        2=100    (N=375)
     France              76        15             7        1=99     (N=305)
     Germany             68        30             1        *=99     (N=327)
     Italy               52        36             7        5=100    (N=258)
     Spain               53        33            10        5=101    (N=247)
     Poland              44        40            10        6=100    (N=205)
     Russia              29        48            17        6=100    (N=290)
     Turkey              35        48            12        6=101    (N=348)

Q.7  If Iraq is disarmed and Saddam Hussein is removed from power by the U.S.
     and its allies, do you think the people of Iraq will be better off or worse
     off in the long run than they are now?

                        Better   Worse     Don't know/
                         Off      Off      Refused
     United States       79         8       13=100
     Britain             76         8       16=100
     France              73        14       13=100
     Germany             71        15       14=100
     Italy               61        18       20=99
     Spain               46        21       33=100
     Poland              52        22       27=101
     Russia              20        40       40=100
     Turkey              33        52       15=100

Q.8  If Iraq is disarmed and Saddam Hussein is removed from power by the U.S.
     and its allies, do you think the Middle East region will be more stable
     or less stable in the long run than it is now?

                        More       Less       Don't know/
                       Stable     Stable      Refused
     United States       64         17         19=100

     Britain             59         22         19=100

     France              46         37         17=100

     Germany             56         32         13=101

     Italy               46         27         26=99

     Spain               38         29         33=100

     Poland              46         34         20=100

     Russia              21         45         34=100

     Turkey              30         56         15=101

Q.9  Do you think the partnership between the U.S. and Western Europe should
     remain as close as it has been or do you think that Western Europe should
     take a more independent approach to security and diplomatic affairs than
     it has in the past?

                            Remain       More        Don't know/
                            As Close   Independent   Refused
     U.S. February, 2003      62          29          9=100

     Britain                  40          48         12=100
          April, 2002         48          47          5=100

     France                   30          67          4=101
          April, 2002         33          60          7=100

     Germany                  46          52          3=101
          April, 2002         44          51          5=100

     Italy                    30          63          7=100
          April, 2002         36          59          5=100

     Spain                    24          60         16=100

     Poland                   40          49         11=100

     Russia                   17          72         11=100

     Turkey                   17          62         21=100

Q.10 Does the current controversy over what to do about Iraq show that the United
     Nations still plays an important role in dealing with international conflicts
     or does it show that the United Nations is not so important any more?

                        Still      Not so     No Difference  Don't know/
                      Important   Important     [VOL.]       Refused
     United States       54         32            1           13=100

     Britain             54         35            1           11=101

     France              55         42            1            2=100

     Germany             73         24            *            3=100

     Italy               52         39            2            8=101

     Spain               41         40            3           16=100

     Poland              49         35            6           11=101

     Russia              29         57            3           11=100

     Turkey              23         47           12           19=101

Ask in Turkey only:
Q.11 Has the Turkish parliament made the right decision not to allow the American
     military to use Turkey as a staging ground for a possible war against Iraq?

                     Right        Wrong     Don't know
                    Decision    Decision    Refused
     Turkey            52         37         11=100

***********************************************************************************

          PEW RESEARCH CENTER FOR THE PEOPLE & THE PRESS
                 MARCH 2003 NEWS INTEREST INDEX
                       FINAL U.S. TOPLINE
                       March 13-16, 2003
                            N=1,032

Q.3  Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way George W. Bush is handling
     the nation's foreign policy?

                                         Gallup     Early
                               April    October     Sept      Aug
                               2002       2001      2001      2001
     53   Approve               69         81        46        45
     36   Disapprove            20         14        34        32
     11   Don't know/Refused    11          5        20        23
     100                       100        100       100       100

On the subject of Iraq
Q.4  How much have you yourself thought about whether the U.S. should use military
     force to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq? [READ]

                                               Early Mid-   Late  Early
                             Feb   Jan   Dec   Oct   Sept   Aug   Jan
                             2003  2003  2002  2002  2002   2002  1991
     64  A Great deal         58    56    58    54    55     46    66
     24  Some                 27    29    29    32    27     35    24
      7  Only a little   OR    8     8     8     8     9     11     6
      4  Not at all            6     6     4     5     6      6     2
      1  Don't know/Refused    1     1     1     1     3      2     2
    100                      100   100   100   100   100    100   100

Q.5/6 Would you favor or oppose taking military action in Iraq to end Saddam Hussein's
      rule? [IF FAVOR, ASK Should we attack Iraq only if our major allies agree to join
      us, or attack Iraq even if allies do not want to join us?]

                                                   Late Early Mid Late --------Gallup----------
                               Feb  Jan  Dec  Nov  Oct  Oct  Sept Aug  June Nov  Feb  June Mar
                               2003 2003 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2001 2001 1993 1992
 59  Favor                      66   68   65   62   55   62   64   64   59   74   52   70   55
   38 Even if allies won't join 38   26   --   --   27   --   33   30   --   --   --   --   --
   16 Only if allies agree      22   37   --   --   23   --   25   30   --   --   --   --   --
    5 Don't know/Refused         6    5   --   --    5   --    6    4   --   --   --   --   --
 30  Oppose                     26   25   25   26   34   28   23   21   34   20   42   27   40
 11  Don't know/Ref.             8    7   10   12   11   10   13   15    7    6    6    3    5
100                            100  100  100  100  100  100  100  100  100  100  100  100  100

ASK ALL:
Q.7  Do you think George W. Bush has explained clearly what's at stake as to why the
     U.S. might use military force to end the rule of Saddam Hussein, or do you think
     he has not explained the reasons clearly enough?

                                                Late  Mid-  Late
                              Feb   Jan   Dec   Oct   Sept  Aug   NY Times
                              2003  2003  2002  2002  2002  2002  Aug 1990
     49   Explained clearly    53    42    48    48    52    37     50
     47   Not clearly          40    53    45    45    37    52     41
      4   Don't know/Refused    7     5     7     7    11    11      9
    100                       100   100   100   100   100   100    100

Q.8  Should the U.S. first get a United Nations resolution to use force before taking
     military action against Iraq or don't you think the U.S. needs to do this?
IF "SHOULD GET UN RESOLUTION" ASK:
Q.9  If the U.S. and most of its allies back using force against Iraq, but the UN resolution
     is vetoed by one or two countries who oppose it   what should the U.S. do?  [READ AND ROTATE]

                                                                        Feb
                                                                        2003
     54  Should first get a UN resolution                                57
        24    Not use force because the UN has not approved it           22
        25    Use force if it feels it is the right thing to do          30
         5    Don't know/Refused (VOL. DO NOT READ)                       5
     35  Does not need to do this                                        33
      1  Should not use force in Iraq (VOL.)                              *
     10  Don't know/Refused (VOL.)                                       10
    100                                                                 100

ASK ALL:
Q.10 In your opinion, what do you think the UN weapons inspections have shown so far...
     [READ ALL THREE OPTIONS; ROTATE ITEMS 1 & 2]
                                                                        Feb
                                                                        2003
     8  That Iraq will cooperate and can be peacefully disarmed           4
    60  That Iraq will not cooperate and can not be peacefully disarmed  58
          --OR--
    28  That it is too early to tell                                     34
     4  Don't know/Refused (VOL. DO NOT READ)                             4
   100                                                                  100

Q.11 From your point of view, does the U.S. now have enough international support to
     use military force against Iraq or do you think it still has to convince more
     of its allies to go along?

                                              Feb
                                              2003
     37  Has enough international support      37
     56  Still has to convince more            56
      7  Don't know/Refused (VOL.)              7
     100                                      100

Q.12 If Iraq is disarmed and Saddam Hussein is removed from power by the U.S. and
     its allies, do you think the people of Iraq will be better off or worse off
     in the long run than they are now?

     79   Better off
      8   Worse off
     13   Don't know/Refused
    100

Q.13 If Iraq is disarmed and Saddam Hussein is removed from power by the U.S. and
     its allies do you think the Middle East region will be more stable or less
     stable in the long run than it is now?

     64   More stable
     17   Less stable
     19   Don't know/Refused
    100

Q.14 Does the current controversy over what to do about Iraq show that the United
     Nations still plays an important role in dealing with international conflicts
     or does it show that the United Nations is not so important any more?

     54   Still plays important role
     32   Not so important
      1   No difference [VOL.]
     13   Don't know/Refused
    100