December 11, 2014

Pope Francis’ Image Positive in Much of World

Methods in Detail

About the 2014 Spring Pew Global Attitudes Survey

Results for the survey are based on telephone and face-to-face interviews conducted under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates International. Survey results are based on national samples. For more information about methodology in Latin American countries, see the Pew Research Religion & Public Life Project’s report, “Religion in Latin America,” released on November 13, 2014. For further details on sample designs, see below.

The descriptions below show the margin of sampling error based on all interviews conducted in that country. For results based on the full sample in a given country, one can say with 95% confidence that the error attributable to sampling and other random effects is plus or minus the margin of error. In addition to sampling error, one should bear in mind that question wording and practical difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of opinion polls.

Country: Argentina
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region, locality size and socioeconomic status
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Spanish
Fieldwork dates: November 15, 2013 – January 8, 2014
Sample size: 1,512
Margin of error: +/-3.9 percentage points
Representative: Nationally representative of 99% of the adult population (excluding Tierra
del Fuego, inaccessible or sparsely populated areas, and villages with fewer
than 400 people)
Country: Bangladesh
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by administrative division and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Bengali
Fieldwork dates: April 14 – May 11, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.8 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Brazil
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region, municipality size and socioeconomic status
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Portuguese
Fieldwork dates: November 4, 2013 – February 14, 2014
Sample size: 2,000
Margin of error: +/-3.8 percentage points
Representative: Nationally representative of 97% of the adult population (excluding remote areas in the Amazon rainforest and interior parts of the Amazonian states)
Country: Chile
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by provinces/major cities, urbanity and socioeconomic status
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Spanish
Fieldwork dates: November 11 – December 16, 2013
Sample size: 1,504
Margin of error: +/-3.6 percentage points
Representative: Nationally representative of 99% of the adult population (excluding remote areas in the Atacama Desert, in mountainous areas, on islands and in the far South)
Country: Colombia
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by municipality and department size
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Spanish
Fieldwork dates: November 28, 2013 – March 4, 2014
Sample size: 1,508
Margin of error: +/-3.8 percentage points
Representative: Nationally representative of 97% of the adult population (excluding remote areas in the Amazon rain forest and San Andres Island)
Country: Egypt
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by governorate and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Arabic
Fieldwork dates: April 10 – April 29, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-4.3 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding frontier governorates, or about 2% of the population)
Country: El Salvador
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by department and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Spanish
Fieldwork dates: November 9 – December 17, 2013
Sample size: 1,500
Margin of error: +/-3.7 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: France
Sample design: Random Digit Dial (RDD) sample of landline and cell phone households with quotas for gender, age and occupation and stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Telephone adults 18 plus
Languages: French
Fieldwork dates: March 17 – April 1, 2014
Sample size: 1,003
Margin of error: +/-4.1 percentage points
Representative: Telephone households (roughly 99% of all French households)
Country: Germany
Sample design: Random Digit Dial (RL(2)D) probability sample of landline households, stratified by administrative district and community size, and cell phone households
Mode: Telephone adults 18 plus
Languages: German
Fieldwork dates: March 17 – April 2, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-4.0 percentage points
Representative: Telephone households (roughly 99% of all German households)
Country: Ghana
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and settlement size
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Akan (Twi), English, Dagbani, Ewe
Fieldwork dates: May 5 – May 31, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.8 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Greece
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Greek
Fieldwork dates: March 22 – April 9, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.7 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding the islands in the Aegean and Ionian Seas, or roughly 6% of the population)
Country: India
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Kannada, Gujarati, Odia
Fieldwork dates: April 14 – May 1, 2014
Sample size: 2,464
Margin of error: +/-3.1 percentage points
Representative: Adult population in 15 of the 17 most populous states (Kerala and Assam were excluded) and the Union Territory of Delhi (roughly 91% of the population). Disproportionately urban. The data were weighted to reflect the actual urbanity distribution in India.
Country: Indonesia
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by province and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Bahasa Indonesian
Fieldwork dates: April 17 – May 23, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-4.0 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding Papua and remote areas or provinces with small populations, or 12% of the population)
Country: Israel
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by district, urbanity and socioeconomic status, with an oversample of Arabs
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Hebrew, Arabic
Fieldwork dates: April 24 – May 11, 2014
Sample size: 1,000 (597 Jews, 388 Arabs, 15 others)
Margin of error: +/-4.3 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (The data were weighted to reflect the actual distribution of Jews, Arabs and others in Israel.)
Country: Italy
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Italian
Fieldwork dates: March 18 – April 7, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-4.3 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Japan
Sample design: Random Digit Dial (RDD) probability sample of landline households stratified by region and population size
Mode: Telephone adults 18 plus
Languages: Japanese
Fieldwork dates: April 10 – April 27, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.2 percentage points
Representative: Landline households (roughly 86% of all Japanese households)
Country: Jordan
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by governorate and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Arabic
Fieldwork dates: April 11 – April 29, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-4.5 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Kenya
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by province and settlement size
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Kiswahili, English
Fieldwork dates: April 18 – April 28, 2014
Sample size: 1,015
Margin of error: +/-4.0 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Lebanon
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Arabic
Fieldwork dates: April 11 – May 2, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-4.1 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding a small area in Beirut controlled by a militia group and a few villages in the south of Lebanon, which border Israel and are inaccessible to outsiders, or about 2% of the population)
Country: Malaysia
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by state and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Bahasa Malaysia, Mandarin Chinese, English
Fieldwork dates: April 10 – May 23, 2014
Sample size: 1,010
Margin of error: +/-3.8 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding difficult to access areas in Sabah and Sarawak, or about 7% of the population)
Country: Mexico
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region, urbanity and election results
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Spanish
Fieldwork dates: October 30 – November 12, 2013
Sample size: 2,000
Margin of error: +/-3.7 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Notes: The sample for Mexico includes a base sample of 1,500 interviews, plus an oversample of 500 interviews in the southern states of Chiapas, Tabasco, Campeche and Quintana Roo.
Country: Nicaragua
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by department and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Spanish
Fieldwork dates: November 9 – December 13, 2013
Sample size: 1,500
Margin of error: +/-2.8 percentage points
Representative: Nationally representative of 99% of the adult population (excluding residents of gated communities and multi-story residential buildings)
Country: Nigeria
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: English, Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo
Fieldwork dates: April 11 – May 25, 2014
Sample size: 1,014
Margin of error: +/-4.3 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding Adamawa, Borno, Cross River, Jigawa, Yobe, and some areas in Taraba, or roughly 12% of the population)
Country: Pakistan
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by province and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Urdu, Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki, Sindhi
Fieldwork dates: April 15 – May 7, 2014
Sample size: 1,203
Margin of error: +/-4.2 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Gilgit-Baltistan, Azad Jammu and Kashmir for security reasons, areas of instability in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [formerly the North-West Frontier Province] and Baluchistan, military restricted areas and villages with less than 100 inhabitants – together, roughly 18% of the population). Disproportionately urban. The data were weighted to reflect the actual urbanity distribution in Pakistan.
Country: Palestinian territories
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urban/rural/refugee camp population
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Arabic
Fieldwork dates: April 15 – April 22, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-4.4 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding Bedouins who regularly change residence and some communities near Israeli settlements where military restrictions make access difficult, or roughly 5% of the population)
Country: Peru
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region, locality size and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Spanish
Fieldwork dates: November 13 – December 16, 2013
Sample size: 1,500
Margin of error: +/-4.0 percentage points
Representative: Nationally representative of 99% of the adult population
Country: Philippines
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilonggo, Ilocano, Bicolano
Fieldwork dates: May 1 – May 21, 2014
Sample size: 1,008
Margin of error: +/-4.0 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Poland
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by province and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Polish
Fieldwork dates: March 17 – April 8, 2014
Sample size: 1,010
Margin of error: +/-3.6 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Russia
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by Russia’s eight geographic regions, plus the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg, and by urban-rural status
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Russian
Fieldwork dates: April 4 – April 20, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.6 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excludes Chechen Republic, Ingush Republic and remote territories in the Far North – together, roughly 3% of the population)
Country: Senegal
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Wolof, French
Fieldwork dates: April 17 – May 2, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.7 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: South Africa
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by metropolitan area, province and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: English, Zulu, Xhosa, South Sotho, Afrikaans, North Sotho
Fieldwork dates: May 18 – June 5, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.5 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: South Korea
Sample design: Random Digit Dial (RDD) probability sample of adults who own a cell phone
Mode: Telephone adults 18 plus
Languages: Korean
Fieldwork dates: April 17 – April 30, 2014
Sample size: 1,009
Margin of error: +/-3.2 percentage points
Representative: Adults who own a cell phone (roughly 96% of adults age 18 and older)
Country: Spain
Sample design: Random Digit Dial (RDD) probability sample of landline and cell phone-only households stratified by region
Mode: Telephone adults 18 plus
Languages: Spanish/Castilian
Fieldwork dates: March 17 – March 31, 2014
Sample size: 1,009
Margin of error: +/-3.2 percentage points
Representative: Telephone households (roughly 97% of Spanish households)
Country: Tanzania
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Kiswahili
Fieldwork dates: April 18 – May 7, 2014
Sample size: 1,016
Margin of error: +/-4.0 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding Zanzibar, or about 3% of the population)
Country: Thailand
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Thai
Fieldwork dates: April 23 – May 24, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.9 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding the provinces of Narathiwat, Pattani, and Yala, or about 3% of the population)
Country: Tunisia
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by governorate and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Tunisian Arabic
Fieldwork dates: April 19 – May 9, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-4.0 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Turkey
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region, urbanity and settlement size
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Turkish
Fieldwork dates: April 11 – May 16, 2014
Sample size: 1,001
Margin of error: +/-4.5 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Uganda
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Luganda, English, Runyankole/Rukiga, Luo, Runyoro/Rutoro, Ateso, Lugbara
Fieldwork dates: April 25 – May 9, 2014
Sample size: 1,007
Margin of error: +/-3.9 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Ukraine
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by Ukraine’s six regions plus ten of the largest cities – Kyiv (Kiev), Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, Donetsk, Zaporizhia, Lviv, Kryvyi Rih, Lugansk, and Mikolayev – as well as three cities on the Crimean peninsula – Simferopol, Sevastopol, and Kerch
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Russian, Ukrainian
Fieldwork dates: April 5 – April 23, 2014
Sample size: 1,659
Margin of error: +/-3.3 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (Survey includes oversamples of Crimea and of the South, East and Southeast regions. The data were weighted to reflect the actual regional distribution in Ukraine.)
Country: United Kingdom
Sample design: Random Digit Dial (RDD) probability sample of landline households, stratified by government office region, and cell phone-only households
Mode: Telephone adults 18 plus
Languages: English
Fieldwork dates: March 17 – April 8, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.4 percentage points
Representative: Telephone households (roughly 98% of all households in the United Kingdom)
Country: United States
Sample design: Random Digit Dial (RDD) probability sample of landline and cell phone households
Mode: Telephone adults 18 plus
Languages: English, Spanish
Fieldwork dates: April 22 – May 11, 2014
Sample size: 1,002
Margin of error: +/-3.5 percentage points
Representative: Telephone households with English or Spanish speakers (roughly 96% of U.S. households)
Country: Venezuela
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by states and municipality size
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Spanish
Fieldwork dates: November 8, 2013 – February 12, 2014
Sample size: 1,540
Margin of error: +/-3.9 percentage points
Representative: Nationally representative of 95% of the adult population (excluding regions of Delta Amacuro, Amazonas and Dependecias Federales, as well as 183 parishes deemed inaccessible based on safety conditions at the time of fieldwork)
Notes: The sample for Venezuela includes additional interviews to correct for gender imbalance detected during fieldwork. The original base sample consisted of 1,500 interviews
Country: Vietnam
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Vietnamese
Fieldwork dates: April 16 – May 8, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-4.5 percentage points
Representative: Adult population