April 15, 2015

Cell Phones in Africa: Communication Lifeline

Methods in Detail

About the 2014 Spring Pew Global Attitudes Survey

Results for the survey are based on telephone and face-to-face interviews conducted under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates International. Survey results are based on national samples. For further details on sample designs, see below.

The descriptions below show the margin of sampling error based on all interviews conducted in that country. For results based on the full sample in a given country, one can say with 95% confidence that the error attributable to sampling and other random effects is plus or minus the margin of error. In addition to sampling error, one should bear in mind that question wording and practical difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of opinion polls.

Country: Ghana
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and settlement size
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Akan (Twi), English, Dagbani, Ewe
Fieldwork dates: May 5 – May 31, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.8 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Kenya
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by province and settlement size
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Kiswahili, English
Fieldwork dates: April 18 – April 28, 2014
Sample size: 1,015
Margin of error: +/-4.0 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Nigeria
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: English, Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo
Fieldwork dates: April 11 – May 25, 2014
Sample size: 1,014
Margin of error: +/-4.3 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding Adamawa, Borno, Cross River, Jigawa, Yobe, and some areas in Taraba, or roughly 12% of the population)
Country: Senegal
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Wolof, French
Fieldwork dates: April 17 – May 2, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.7 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: South Africa
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by metropolitan area, province and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: English, Zulu, Xhosa, South Sotho, Afrikaans, North Sotho
Fieldwork dates: May 18 – June 5, 2014
Sample size: 1,000
Margin of error: +/-3.5 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: Tanzania
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Kiswahili
Fieldwork dates: April 18 – May 7, 2014
Sample size: 1,016
Margin of error: +/-4.0 percentage points
Representative: Adult population (excluding Zanzibar, or about 3% of the population)
Country: Uganda
Sample design: Multi-stage cluster sample stratified by region and urbanity
Mode: Face-to-face adults 18 plus
Languages: Luganda, English, Runyankole/Rukiga, Luo, Runyoro/Rutoro, Ateso, Lugbara
Fieldwork dates: April 25 – May 9, 2014
Sample size: 1,007
Margin of error: +/-3.9 percentage points
Representative: Adult population
Country: United States
Sample design: Random Digit Dial (RDD) probability sample of landline and cell phone households
Mode: Telephone adults 18 plus
Languages: English, Spanish
Fieldwork dates: April 22 – May 11, 2014
Sample size: 1,002
Margin of error: +/-3.5 percentage points
Representative: Telephone households with English or Spanish speakers (roughly 96% of U.S. households)