May 10, 2018

Number of Foreign College Students Staying and Working in U.S. After Graduation Surges

Appendix A: References

Bartlett, Tom, Karin Fischer, and Josh Keller. 2011. “Little-Known Colleges Exploit Visa Loopholes to Make Millions Off Foreign Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, March.

Benderly, Beryl L. 2016. “Work program for recent foreign grads in legal limbo.” Washington, D.C.: Science Magazine, January.

Fragomen. 2016. “D.C. Circuit Court Dismisses Appeal Challenging 2008 STEM OPT Rule.” Fragomen, May.

Gates, Bill. 2007. “How to Keep America Competitive.” Washington D.C.: The Washington Post, February.

Haddal, Chad C. 2008. “Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation.” Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, January.

Hopper, Jessica. 2011. “Immigration Officials: Tri-Valley U. and Students Involved in Visa Scam.” ABC News, February.

Jackman, Tom. 2013. “The University of Northern Virginia is ordered to close in Annadale after 15 years.” Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post, July.

Murphy, Katy. 2016. “Feds revoke student visas to Silicon Valley’s Herguan University.” Mercury News, October.

National Public Radio. 2008. “Bill Gates Targets Visa Rules for Tech Workers.” Washington D.C.: NPR, March.

Redden, Elizabeth. 2018. “’Suspect’ California University Shut Down.” Inside Higher Education, April.

Ruiz, Neil G. 2017. “Key facts about the U.S. H-1B visa program.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, April.

Ruiz, Neil G. 2014. “The Geography of Foreign Students in U.S. Higher Education: Origins and Destinations.” Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, August.

Ruiz, Neil G. 2017. “More foreign grads of U.S. colleges are staying in the country to work.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, May.

Ruiz, Neil G. and Jens Manuel Krogstad. 2018. “East Coast and Texas metros had the most H-1B visas for skilled workers from 2010 to 2016.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, March.

Ruiz, Neil G. and Jynnah Radford. 2017. “New foreign student enrollment at U.S. colleges and universities doubled since Great Recession.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, November.

Ruiz, Neil G. Abby Budiman, Jynnah Radford and Antonio Flores. 2017. “Facts on Foreign Students in the U.S.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, November.

Scola, Nancy. 2014. “Obama likely to expand a foreign-student pipeline the high-tech industry loves.” Washington D.C.: The Washington Post, November.

Sviokla, John. 2009. “The Brain Drain That Should Worry US Business.” Harvard Business Review, May.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. 2017. “Characteristics of H-1B Specialty Occupation Workers, Fiscal Year 2016 Annual Report to Congress, October 1, 2015-September 30, 2016.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, May.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. 2016. “Characteristics of H-1B Specialty Occupation Workers, Fiscal Year 2015 Annual Report to Congress, October 1, 2014-September 30, 2015.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, March.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. 2016. “Retention of EB-1, EB-2, and EB-3 Immigrant Workers and Program Improvements Affecting High-Skilled Nonimmigrant Workers.” Washington, D.C.: Federal Register, November.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. 2015. “Characteristics of H-1B Specialty Occupation Workers, Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report to Congress, October 1, 2013-September 30, 2014.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, February.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2016. “Improving and Expanding Training Opportunities for F-1 Nonimmigrant Students with STEM Degrees and Cap-Gap Relief for All Eligible F-1 Students.” Federal Registrar, March.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2008. “Extending Period of Optional Practical Training by 17 Months for F-1 Nonimmigrant Students with STEM Degrees and Expanding Cap-Gap Relief for All F-1 Students with H-1B Petitions.” Federal Registrar, April.

U.S. District Court. “Washington Alliance of Technology Workers VS. U.S. Department of Homeland Security.” Washington D.C.: U.S. District Court, April.

U.S. Government Accountability Office. 2014. “Student and Exchange Visitor Program: DHS Needs to Assess Risks and Strengthen Oversight of Foreign Students with Employment Authorization.” Washington, D.C.: United States Government Accountability Office, February.

Wilhelm, Alex. 2013. “Why High-Skilled Immigration Reform Is Stuck.” TechCrunch, September.